Management is the management of an organisation, whether it’s a private company a public non-profit organisation, or government agency. Management covers all the processes that lead to the production of output. The term is usually applied to any process in a production environment that produces a product or service for consumers or for other entities. In other words, it can cover labour, capital, resources and techniques used in a business or organisation to ensure that the production of goods and services meets the needs and expectations of consumers.
Management can be defined as a systematic approach to problem solving using the knowledge, skills and knowledge of individuals at different levels of an organisation. The different levels of management are planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and motivating. Organizational design is one way of addressing these different levels of management in an effective manner. Organizational design is concerned with how organisations are structured to effectively manage their activities and operations. For example, an information system for a hospital may use a different set of systems thinking and organizing procedures compared to a retail company.
In order to address issues of efficiency and effectiveness, good management requires a comprehensive organizational structure with clearly defined objectives, processes, roles, and structures. Objectives refer to the goals that an organisation wants to achieve over a period of time. They may include reaching the company’s short, medium, and long-term objectives. Processes and roles refer to the interactions between employees and managers on various levels within an organisation.
The two main types of management styles are linear management by delegation. Linear management is based on the principle that staff members perform according to a pre-established process. The manager has a set of responsibilities, which are known as objectives. There are typically fixed staff levels and a sequence of commands that are implemented in a certain order until the desired result is achieved.
Managers who apply the traditional, linear style are referred to as controlling managers. They generally report directly to a higher power, for example, the CEO. This is because, although they are direct subordinates of their seniors, they still have a number of tasks they must perform in order to achieve the overall organizational goals. Some managers who use the controlling approach are known as controlling directors or planners since they have a detailed plan which is followed from top to bottom in order to set specific objectives and measures of success.
The key takeaways for managers are to set relevant objectives and measures, develop a management process and structure, and organize people in an effective manner. All these elements must be managed in coordination with one another. By so doing, managers will be able to effectively organize their staff, increase productivity, reduce costs, and provide superior customer service.